Friday, March 7, 2014

Timber Work 01-Basic tools


In timber work which involves carpentry, joinery and cabinetry etc quite a number of hand tools are used for different purposes. It is very important to:
1.      Select the proper tool for a given work
2.      Use it correctly
3.      Maintain the tool properly and
4.      Store it safely after use.
Given below are the basic hand tools used in timber vocations, their use, maintenance and storage.
Measuring, marking and checking tools

Steel Ruler
Made of stainless steel. Graduated in 0.5mm (metric) and 1/64”(Imperial).
Measuring is easy because graduations start from the end of the ruler.

Measuring Tape
Graduated in cm and inches.
Easy to use since folds automatically due to spring load.
Mostly used tool for measuring in engineering work.

Try Square
Made with a 90° angle between the stock and blade.
Used to draw lines at right angles to a straight edge or to check squareness.
Divider
Used to transfer measurements from one place to another, and to draw arcs or circles.
Marking Gauge
Used to draw lines parallel to an edge.
Cutting and paring tools
Hand saw
Types vary on the blade length and No. of Teeth per cm.
Used to cut and separate timber parts.
Cutting should be done at an inclination to the timber.
Tenon Saw
The blade is stiffened by a thick edge opposite the cutting edge.
Used to make precise cuts in jointing timber
Coping Saw
Has a thin blade.
Not suitable for straight cuts.
Used for curved cuts.
Blade is easily breakable.
Hack Saw
Used to cut metal rods, pipes etc.
The blade has to be fixed to the frame.
Blades with appropriate No. of teeth per cm should be selected for different work.
Rip Saw
Used to cut along the grain of timber.
Usually with a long blade.

Planes
Consist of a stock, handle/s, blade and adjusting screw.
Used to make timber surfaces smooth.
Different lengths and shapes are available different types of work.

Chisels
Used for making mortises, chases etc in wood.
Consist of a blade, ferrule and handles.
Heavy duty type chisels have a shock absorber at the ferrule.
There are several types of chisels:
Bevel edge - Bevelled blade for paring and making narrow grooves.
Firmer – Flat blade for heavy, deep cuts.
Mortise – In varying widths for cutting mortises
Gouges – with curved blades for carving work.



Driving Tools
Screw driver
The tip is shaped in three patterns: Flat, Philips head and Star.
Can be selected in many sizes to suit the use.
Used for driving and removing screws.



Hammers
Many types used for many purposes.
Claw hammer – for driving and removing nails.
Ball pein – For riveting
Cross pein – For tinkering work


    Claw Hammer
 

    Cross Pein Hammer
    Ball Pein Hammer
 


  

Mallet
Used with the chisel to drive it into timber. Also used for shaping sheet metal.

Rachet Brace
Used for drilling holes of different sizes in wood.
Most suitable for soft wood.
The handle has a rachet which makes it convenient to work in confined spaces.
Hand drill and twist drill bits
Counter sink Bit
Twist drill bit
Mostly used for drilling small holes.
Drill bit should be changed according to the drill size.
There are power operated hand drills too.

Bradawl
A tool with pointed blade and handle.
Used to make holes in wood for screws.
Should be used with the mallet.


Maintenance of Tools

Sharpening - Tools should be properly maintained to get the best results. All cutting tools should be sharpened regularly to give a sharp cutting edge. Proper angle of the cutting edge must be maintained when sharpening.
Cleaning – After use tools should be cleaned and wiped. If not intended to be used for a long period of time, the tools should be oiled lightly to prevent rusting.
Storing – Tools when not in use should be stored properly. Tool safety and user safety must be considered when planning storage. One of the most appropriate methods of storing hand tools is to use a shadow board where each tool could be hanged securely and their shadow is painted on the rack/shelf which makes it easy to identify missing tools.


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